The crux of the Bh\u0101rat\u012bya tradition is the theory of karm\u0101. Simply put, the theory may be explained as the inevitable consequences of deeds, both good and bad. Noble deeds result in pleasurable consequences while wicked deeds result in painful consequences, and these consequences are believed to dictate man\u2019s present circumstances as well as circumstances in future lives. These consequences are also believed to dictate future lives in general. Pleasurable consequences are seldom begrudged by man, but the painful consequences are baulked at. Expiatory rites thus play a major role in the lives of mankind. It is believed that the expiatory rites, by virtue of how demanding they are, result in the easing of one\u2019s pain. Opposed to popular understanding, expiatory rites are not an easy fix for heinous sins. One is expected to live life, cogitating every day the ignoble deeds one is likely to have indulged in, and perform expiations. The practice is a precursor, it is believed, to a conscientious life, where man develops a fear and subsequently an aversion for sins. In other words, expiation is a tool for the refinement of the human mind. Par\u012bksit however, does not admit to the efficacy of the tool. He states, \u0915\u094d\u0935\u091a\u093f\u0928\u094d\u0928\u093f\u0935\u0930\u094d\u0924\u0924\u0947 \u092d\u0926\u094d\u0930\u093e\u0924\u094d \u0915\u094d\u0935\u091a\u093f\u091a\u094d\u091a\u0930\u0924\u093f \u0924\u0924\u094d\u092a\u0941\u0928\u0903\u0964 \u092a\u094d\u0930\u093e\u092f\u0936\u094d\u091a\u093f\u0924\u094d\u0924\u092e\u0924\u094b\u093d\u092a\u093e\u0930\u094d\u0925\u0902 \u092e\u0928\u094d\u092f\u0947 \u0915\u0941\u091e\u094d\u091c\u0930\u0936\u094c\u091a\u0935\u0924\u094d\u0965 kvacinnivartate bhadr\u0101t kvaciccarati tatpuna\u1e25| pr\u0101ya\u015bcittamato'p\u0101rtha\u1e41 manye ku\u00f1jara\u015baucavat|| One abstains from sin momentarily only to revert to it later (despite expiations). I hence consider expiation as futile as bathing an elephant1! \u015ar\u012bmadbh\u0101gavata, 5.1.10 1An elephant throws sand on itself soon after a bath and hence renders the cleansing futile. \u015ar\u012b\u015buka explicates further that ignorance is the root-cause of all deeds including expiation, and that expiation can therefore not cleanse man of the tendency to sin. He states that expiation, by virtue of not being performed with a mind stilled in the Supreme, does not result in the expunging of sinful tendencies. He states however, that an attached mind, when turned towards the Supreme, even momentarily, can lead to redemption. Sage \u015auka narrates the tale of Aj\u0101mila and how resorting to the Divine Name of N\u0101r\u0101ya\u1e47a redeemed him. In the city of K\u0101nyakubja lived a br\u0101hma\u1e47a called Aj\u0101mila. He was a man of great learning, pious practices, austere living and noble character. He once went to the forest to procure firewood as instructed by his father, when he chanced upon a harlot in the company of a lascivious man. Impassioned by the unbridled amour he witnessed, he became consumed with the harlot. He abandoned his lawfully wedded wife and committed himself to the harlot. He lavished all his inheritance on her. He sired ten sons in her and took to heinousness to support the family. He indulged in highway-robbery, gambling, cheating and stealing without reserve. Cruelty became a norm in his demeanor. His once pious life now became a heinous one. Aj\u0101mila was supremely attached to the youngest of the ten children, N\u0101r\u0101ya\u1e47a. He watched the child prattle, fed him and coddled him, little aware of the approaching angels of death. At eighty-eight, his ordained time upon earth was up and messengers of lord Yama arrived to claim him. Aj\u0101mila has led a heinous life and thus had to be taken to the purgatory to be punished, before he could be consigned to another birth. At the ordained moment, Aj\u0101mila saw three fearsome emissaries of death before his eyes. Terrified by their horrific forms, Aj\u0101mila called out to N\u0101r\u0101ya\u1e47a, who was playing a short distance away. The calling caught the attention of not the playing lad, but of the N\u0101r\u0101ya\u1e47a residing in Vaiku\u1e47\u1e6dha. Messengers of \u015ar\u012bmann\u0101r\u0101ya\u1e47a rushed to the dying man\u2019s side instantaneously. Beholding Aj\u0101mila\u2019s soul being dragged away by the emissaries of death, the messengers of N\u0101r\u0101ya\u1e47a intervened. Obstructed, the emissaries of death demanded to know who the effulgent beings were and why they were being stopped from taking away the adh\u0101rmic soul to the purgatories. They stated, \u2018all men who engage in evil deeds must suffer the consequences thereof. This man led a life of heinousness. He neither performed any expiation nor has been remorseful. He must hence be purified in the purgatory.\u2019 The messengers of N\u0101r\u0101ya\u1e47a responded that Aj\u0101mila had performed expiation for sins committed not just in this birth, but for those committed several previous births as well. They stated, \u2018although in a state of helplessness, this man called out to N\u0101r\u0101ya\u1e47a incessantly. And, \u0938\u093e\u0919\u094d\u0915\u0947\u0924\u094d\u092f\u0902 \u092a\u093e\u0930\u093f\u0939\u093e\u0938\u094d\u092f\u0902 \u0935\u093e \u0938\u094d\u0924\u094b\u092d\u0902 \u0939\u0947\u0932\u0928\u092e\u0947\u0935 \u0935\u093e\u0964 \u0935\u0948\u0915\u0941\u0923\u094d\u0920\u0928\u093e\u092e\u0917\u094d\u0930\u0939\u0923\u092e\u0936\u0947\u0937\u093e\u0918\u0939\u0930\u0902 \u0935\u093f\u0926\u0941\u0903\u0965 s\u0101\u1e45ketya\u1e41 p\u0101rih\u0101sya\u1e41 v\u0101 stobha\u1e41 helanameva v\u0101| vaiku\u1e47\u1e6dhan\u0101magraha\u1e47ama\u015be\u1e63\u0101ghahara\u1e41 vidu\u1e25|| Uttering the Divine Name of the Supreme, whether done while calling out to someone, done in jest, in rote-repetition, or in ridicule extinguishes sins, opine the wise. \u015ar\u012bmadbh\u0101gavata, 5.2.14 They continued further, \u2018seers had recommended various expiations in accordance with the heinousness of the sin committed. The more heinous the sin, the more demanding the expiatory rite. These rites wipe out sins committed but do not however, effect a change of heart in the doer. Sinful tendencies however, are wiped out by the Divine Name. \u0905\u091c\u094d\u091e\u093e\u0928\u093e\u0926\u0925\u0935\u093e \u091c\u094d\u091e\u093e\u0928\u093e\u0926\u0941\u0924\u094d\u0924\u092e\u0936\u094d\u0932\u094b\u0915\u0928\u093e\u092e \u092f\u0924\u094d\u0964 \u0938\u0919\u094d\u0915\u0940\u0930\u094d\u0924\u093f\u0924\u092e\u0918\u0902 \u092a\u0941\u0902\u0938\u094b \u0926\u0939\u0947\u0926\u0947\u0927\u094b \u092f\u0925\u093e\u0928\u0932\u0903\u0965 aj\u00f1\u0101n\u0101dathav\u0101 j\u00f1\u0101n\u0101duttama\u015blokan\u0101ma yat| sa\u1e45k\u012brtitamagha\u1e41 pu\u1e41so dahededho yath\u0101nala\u1e25|| The utterance of the Divine Name of the redeemer, whether uttered with knowledge (of its efficacy) or otherwise, burns down the sins of man as does fire fuel. \u015ar\u012bmadbh\u0101gavata, 5.2.18 With these claims, the attendants of N\u0101r\u0101ya\u1e47a released Aj\u0101mila from the grasp of the emissaries of death. True to sentiments expressed by N\u0101r\u0101ya\u1e47a\u2019s attendants, Aj\u0101mila was a changed man. The conversation exchanged between the attendants of N\u0101r\u0101ya\u1e47a and those of Yama had informed his sense of dharma. He was filled with remorse at having abandoned his wife and his aged parents. He resolved to tame his senses by resorting to the Divine Name, so that he will never again fall prey to temptation. He left home for the sacred place of Haridv\u0101ra with determination. His senses reined in, he united his mind with the inner-self. Thus disentangling the true-self from the body, he merged in the Supreme. His mortal frame dropped in the holy waters of the Ga\u1e45g\u0101 and a divine body that resembled the attendants of N\u0101r\u0101ya\u1e47a attained to him. Amount an aerial chariot and accompanied by the attendants of N\u0101r\u0101ya\u1e47a, Aj\u0101mila left for the supreme abode of Vaiku\u1e47\u1e6dha.