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Śakti – The Supreme

Śrīvidyā is the mystical science of Sanātana-dharma that eulogizes the Supreme as Lalitā-tripurasundarī. She is the embodiment of spiritual potency or Śakti, that animates all creation, including the manifestations of Godheads. Ādi Śaṅkara states,

शिवः शक्त्या युक्तो यदि भवति शक्तः प्रभवितुं
न चेदेवं देवो न खलु कुशलः स्पन्दितुमपि।
अतस्त्वामाराध्यां हरिहरविरिञ्च्यादिभिरपि
प्रणन्तुं स्तोतुं वा कथमकृतपुण्यः प्रभवति॥

śivaḥ śaktyā yukto yadi bhavati śaktaḥ prabhavituṃ
na cedevaṃ devo na khalu kuśalaḥ spanditumapi |
atastvāmārādhyāṃ hariharaviriñcyādibhirapi
praṇantuṃ stotuṃ vā kathamakṛtapuṇyaḥ prabhavati ||

Saundaryalaharī

Śiva, only if united with Śakti is empowered to act. Else, He remains, bereft of potency, even to stir. While so, how does one, devoid of any merit, endeavour to salute Thee or praise Thee, who art worthy of the adulation of the Gods, headed by the Trinity1?

At the highest plane of awareness, the Supreme is an undivided triune of Being (sat), Consciousness (cit), and Bliss (ānanda). At this state, no creation is possible. When the triune splits into distinct sections and unites with the potency (Śakti) of the Supreme, Kriyā (agency) is born, and creation evolves. Thus, the Supreme being too, devoid of potency, is inanimate. Śaṅkara hints here, at this subtle truth behind creation, and glorifies the Devī, from whom proceeds all of creation. He argues to Her Absoluteness by stating it is She who lends Śiva animism, and it is in creation that liberation is found.

The ten days of Navarātri are dedicated primarily, to the worship of this potency that animates creation and enables liberation2. The ten-day festival is informed by the Purāṇic episode of Goddess Caṇḍī slaying the asuras, Madhu-Kaiṭabha and Śumbha-Niśumbha. The Devī-māhātmyam3 describes in great detail, how the malevolent asuras were slain by the Devī. The anecdote is believed also to be, allegorical of the triumph of man over inner rajas and tamas. On this day, the first of the ten sacred days, may the Devī impel our intellect towards Divine knowledge, our hearts towards sacred thoughts, and our hands towards service to fellow man.

या देवी सर्वभूतेषु बुद्धिरूपेण संस्थिता।
नमस्तस्यै नमस्तस्यै नमस्तस्यै नमो नमः॥

yā devī sarvabhūteṣu buddhirūpeṇa saṁsthitā |
namastasyai namastasyai namastasyai namo namaḥ ||

My salutation to that Supreme one (Devī) who shines as the intellect in all creation.

1. Ādi Śaṅkara suggests, ‘If Lord Śiva himself owes His ability to act to (the Potency that is) Devī, how then is he, a mere mortal, and that too, one devoid of any merit (puṇya), to claim authorship of this laudatory verse?’ After all, it is Devī alone, who has the power to act.
2. In some Northern states of India, Navarātri is also associated with the Rāmlīlā festival. Amateur actors don the roles of various characters of the Rāmāyaṇa and enact the itihāsa as related by Tulasīdāsa.
3. Chapters 81-93 of the Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa are known as Devī-māhātmyam, and are ceremoniously chanted during Navarātri.

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